Education in India

Education boards in India

In India, Education related matters are managed both by both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The provision of Education as a fundamental right is contained in various articles of the Indian constitution. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. Education in India falls under the control of The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). It is an apex resource organisation set up by the Government of India, with headquarters at New Delhi, to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on academic matters related to school education. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. The objective of NCERT is to assist and advise the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare in the implementation of its policies and major programmes in the field of education, particularly school education. It's functions include Research, Development, Training, Extension, Publication and Dissemination and Exchange Programmes. The NCERT also drafts, publishes and recommends school text books (from Class I to Class XII) of various subjects based on the recommendations of knowledgeable faculty in the subject. In India, the various curriculum bodies governing school education system are: 


International Schools - These are affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations. Islamic Madrasah Schools - These Boards are controlled by Local State Governments, or Autonomous, Or Affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband. Autonomous Schools - These include Woodstock School, Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula. 

State Government Boards - Every state has it's own Education Board which looks after the Academic Affairs of the schools coming under it. These Boards conduct various types of examinations which vary from State to State but most of them conduct the following Examinations - 

  • Middle Standard Examination
  • Senior Secondary Exam
  • Senior Secondary - Open School
  • Matriculation
  • Matriculation - Open School


Board Composition / Structure - Most of the State Boards have similar composition which consists of the following members at the topmost Hierarchy 

  • Chairman
  • Vice Chairman
  • Director - Academic
  • Controller Of Exams
  • Secretary
  • Joint Secretary
  • FDO
  • Joint Director Publishing


Board Divisions / Sections / Committees / Branches - Similarly every State Board has various Divisions / Sections / Committees which take important decisions regarding day-to-day work and other important matters. Some common divisions are as follows - 

  • Administrative Wing
  • Examination Wing
  • Account Section
  • Finance Committee
  • Education Committee
  • Magazine Advisory Committee
  • Certificate Section
  • Computer Branch
  • Conduct Branch


National Institute Of Open Schooling Board - Also known as NOS or National Open School, NIOS is the National Board of Education for school level in India similar to CBSE and ICSE. NIOS is credited to be the largest open school in the world with significant popularity in the Commonwealth countries and in certain other developing and developed countries. NIOS has been offering Secondary and Senior Secondary courses through 2144 study centres, Vocational Education & training (VET) courses through 1106 study centres and Open Basic Education Programme through 664 Accredited Agencies. There are 26 study centres of NIOS in overseas countries. It is an important initiative of the Government of India, created to cater to the educational needs of students who cannot attend regular schools. Students who benefit from this initiative include sportspersons who have to train and travel all through the academic year; those with a physical handicap; and those with chronic medical illness. Additionally, a large number of candidates who register with the NIOS Board are those with learning disorders or other psychiatric conditions. Many (but not all) boards, institutions, and universities across the country recognize the NIOS certification for continued or higher studies; these are listed in the NIOS prospectus and at the NIOS website. 
Visit - http://www.nios.ac.in 

History - It was established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India in November 1989. It was established as an autonomous organisation. NOS was originally experimented upon 1978 as a project of the CBSE and was later amalgamated with NIOS. 

Board Pattern - It offers a national board examination at two levels: secondary and higher secondary. Examinations are conducted twice a year: in April-May, and in October-November. Students are allowed a maximum of nine chances across a maximum of five years to complete their examinations; they can appear for as few or as many subjects at a time as they wish. Students who do not complete the examinations in all their chosen subjects within the specified period can re-apply and have their examination credits transferred. Most questions in the theory papers require short answers, or answers in points. Practical examinations are conducted in subjects such as science, geography, word processing, home science, and painting. The examiners tend to be lenient in their standards, understanding the special needs of the students who appear. Students require to score a minimum of 33% to pass an examination. The NIOS also offers an on-demand examination system. Thus, a student who completes his preparation in one of his chosen subjects can visit the NIOS centre and ask for an immediate examination in that subject. A question paper will be generated from a question bank and he will be examined. The advantages of this system are enormous: the student can appear when he is ready; the pressure on the student is less; and the student is permitted to appear as often as he wants if he wants to improve his performance. At present, though, the on-demand examination system is available only for certain subjects, and only at the NIOS headquarters in Noida. The system is shortly expected to be expanded to included more subjects and other centres across the country. 

The Secondary Level is equivalent to the ICSE, CBSE, SSLC National Or State Standard 10 board examinations. The Higher Secondary Level Is equivalent to the PUC and other Standard 12 board examinations. 

Choice of Subjects - NIOS requires students to study a minimum of five and a maximum of seven subjects. There is a very wide range of subjects on offer; students, therefore, have much flexibility in selecting areas in which they are able to attempt an examination. Students are also allowed to change subjects midway through the course if they are unhappy with their choice. Students can choose from among three languages for their medium of instruction. 

The Secondary Examination Subjects can be chosen from the following list:
Any one or two of 15 different languages mathematics, science, social studies, economics, business studies, home science, typewriting (either of two languages), word processing (either of two languages), psychology, and Indian culture and heritage. 

The Senior Secondary Examination subjects can be chosen from the following list: 
Any one or two of three different languages; mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, political science, economics, commerce, accounts, home science, typewriting (any of three languages), word processing, stenography (any of three languages), secretarial practice, psychology, computer science, sociology, and painting. 

Board Structure - It consists of Executive Board, Chairman, Academic Committee, Finance Committee, Regional Centres, Departments, Divisions etc. http://www.nios.ac.in/org1.htm 

Regional Offices - In order to systematise the interaction between the NIOS and the State Open Schools and other agencies, it was considered appropriate to establish a forum under the NIOS in the form of a Consortium. The Board has regional Offices in Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chandigarh, Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Kochi, Bhopal, Allahabad and Dehradun. 

International Schools - These are affiliated to 

IB - International Baccalaureate Programme 
CIE - Cambridge International Examinations


IB - International Baccalaureate Organisation is an international organisation, not associated with any particular country and free of national political educational agendas. These schools are affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme. The IB programme is more practical and application-based. It has a broader spectrum of subjects that lead to all-round development. IB examinations test students' knowledge, not their memory and speed. There are no examinations till the Middle Years Programme (Class 10). The focus of the IB pedagogy is on 'how to learn' rather than 'what to learn'. There are no prescribed textbooks; students can choose their own books. The purpose of IB is to produce global citizens. But sometimes, the IB programme does use the local curriculum as a base. For example, Hindi can be offered as a second language in the IB Diploma Programme. The IB curriculum is more challenging than educational boards like CBSE and ICSE. But the challenge is in the quality of assignments, not in the amount of work assigned. The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) rates IB at par with Class 12 CBSE, ICSE, NIOS or State Boards. But every now and then, one hears of stray incidents of IB students finding difficulty in getting admission in certain Indian colleges and universities.Visit - www.ibo.org 

History - The IB programme was founded in 1968 by the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO), a non-profit educational organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland. 

Pattern - It is made up of Three Educational Programmes 

PYP: The Primary Years Programme (Kindergarten to Class 5). Subjects in the Primary Years Programme (PYP) are:

  1. Language
  2. Social Studies
  3. Mathematics
  4. Science and Technology
  5. Arts
  6. Personal, Social and Physical education


MYP: The Middle Years Programme (Class 6 to Class 10). Subjects in the Middle Years Programme (MYP) are:

  1. 1st Language
  2. 2nd Language
  3. Humanities (History and Geography)
  4. Sciences (Biology, Chemistry & Physics)
  5. Mathematics (Number, Algebra, Geometry, Statistics, and Discrete Mathematics)
  6. Arts (Visual Arts and Performing Arts)
  7. Physical Education
  8. Technology (Computers)


DP: The Diploma Programme (Class 11 to Class 12). DP students choose one subject from each of the following six 'Subject Groups': 

  • Group 1: First Language (English)
  • Group 2: Second Language (French, Hindi, etc).
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies (History, Economics, Business and Management, etc).
  • Group 4: Sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Systems).
  • Group 5: Mathematics and Computer Science.
  • Group 6: Electives (either Visual Arts or a second subject from Groups 3, 4 or 5).


In addition, all DP students must study a two-year course called 

Theory of Knowledge (TOK) - Theory of Knowledge is an essay of 1,200-1,600 words written on a given title (from a choice of ten), followed by a ten-minute presentation of the essay by the DP student in class. 

Extended Essay (EE) - Extended Essay is an original independent research leading a DP student to produce a comprehensible written piece of 3,500-4,000 words in any chosen subject and title. 

Creativity, Action, and Service (CAS) - Under Creative, Action and Service, each DP student must complete at least 150 hours spread out over one-and-a-half years, engaging in some form of Creativity, participating in sport or other physical Action, and doing social Service 

CIE - University of Cambridge International Examinations is India's largest provider of international qualifications for 14-19 year olds - and the world's. CIE is a not-for-profit organisation, and part of the University of Cambridge. It's educational excellence makes Cambridge qualifications - like IGCSE and International A/AS Level - renowned among universities and employers. Cambridge qualifications are internationally recognised as a mark of quality by schools, universities and employers. 
Visit - http://www.cie.org.uk/countries/india 

History - CIE was formally established in 1998 to provide high-quality, leading-edge qualifications that meet the ongoing demands of employers and educators across the world. 

Pattern 

Cambridge International Primary Programme - It is for young children aged 5 - 11, and it helps them to develop core skills of numeracy, literacy and understanding scientific observation. 

Cambridge Lower Secondary Programme - It imparts skills in Mathematics, English and Science, and prepares students for their first external examinations. 

Islamic Madrasah Schools affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband - The Darul Uloom Deoband is an Islamic school propagating Sunni Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. It is here that the Deobandi Islamic movement was started. It is located at Deoband, a town in Uttar Pradesh, India. The Darul Uloom has expanded its activities and started new departments during the last decades. In view of great challenge from the Ahmadiyya Movement (Qadiyanism), Darul Uloom convened the All India Tahaffuz Khatm-e-Nubuwwat Conference and established a special department to refute Qadiyanism. It started the 'Shaikhul Hind Academy' for publishing books, and training students in Urdu journalism. In 1996, the Computer Department was opened, which was later extended and an Internet Department also added. The Darul Uloom has also introduced a two-year full-time Diploma in English language and literature for students wishing to pursue higher education in universities. 

History - In 1857, the British East India Company tried to crush the independence movement by disparate north Indian forces. Emperor Zafar was the last Mughal Emperor at that time and his sons were put to death. This marked a seminal moment for Indo-Islamic consciousness and the beginning of a dark period of Muslim history in India. In order to preserve Indo-Islamic culture and train the youth in Islamic knowledge the foundation of Darul Uloom Deoband was founded on the day of Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May 30, 1866) by several prominent Islamic scholars (ulema), headed by Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi. The other prominent founding scholars were Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and Haji Syed Abid Hussain. 

Pattern - The syllabus consists of Four Stages. The first three stages can be completed in a total of eight years. The final stage is a post-graduate stage where students specialize in a number of advanced.According to the rules of Darul Uloom, the completion of the primary course is necessary for reaching the "Arabic Classes". The post-graduate class is not compulsory; if the student wants to acquire mastery in any subject or topic, he can take admission in the post-graduate class and continue his education. 

The syllabus consists of four stages: Primary, Middle, High, Mastery (Post-graduate stage). 

More Info - http://www.darululoom-deoband.com/english/index.htm 

Autonomous Schools -These schools are self-governed, self-reliant and independent world-class international schools. 
Woodstock - http://www.woodstock.ac.in
Auroville - http://www.auroville.org
Ananda Marga Gurukula - http://www.gurukul.edu/
Patha Bhavan - http://www.pathabhavan.com/

School Education boards in India
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