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Conjunctions

 Those words which merely join two sentences and sometime two words are known as conjunctions.

  1. Two and two makes four.
  2. He must weep, or he will die.
  3. Our resources are little, but our moral is high.

In the above examples the words in bolds represents the conjunction. In first sentence conjunction is joining two words and in the second and third sentence conjunctions are joining two sentences.

 Correlatives Conjunctions

                          Compound Conjunctions

                                                          Kind of Conjunctions

1.  Co-coordinating Conjunction

2.  Subordinating Conjunction

        List of Conjunctions

 Use of some of the important Conjunctions                   

                                                        Exercise for Conjunction 

 

Correlatives Conjunctions

Those conjunctions which are used in pairs in pairs are known as correlative conjunctions or simply known as correlatives

  1. You can either take it or leave it.
  2. It is neither yours nor mine
  3. I do not care whether you stay or leave.

In the above examples words in bolds represents correlative conjunction.

Compound Conjunctions

Certain compound expressions that are used as conjunctions are known as compound conjunctions.

  1. I will not punish you on condition that you will not repeat the mistake again.
  2. He took of his uniform as soon as he entered his room.

In the above examples words in bolds represents compound conjunction.

Kind of Conjunctions

Conjunctions can be classified into following main kinds:

1. Co-coordinating Conjunction

Those conjunctions that join two independent statements are known as co-coordinating conjunctions. These two statements are usually of equal rank.

  1. Ram went to temple and Rahim went to Mosque.

In the above example and is a coordinating conjunction which is joining two independent statements (Ram went to temple, Rahim went to Mosque)  of equal rank.

Type of Co-ordinating Conjunction

Co-ordinating conjunction can be further classified in four main type:-

a. Comulative or Copulative

Those coordinating conjunctions that merely join two sentences are known as cumulative or copulative co-ordinating conjunctions.

  1. He went to school and I went to stadium.

In the above example word in bolds represents a cumulative or copulative coordinating conjunction as it is merely joining two sentences.

b. Adversative

That coordinating conjunction which express contrast between the two sentences it is joining is known as an adversative conjunction.

  1. He is slow, but he is quite accurate.

In the above example word in bolds represents an adversative coordinating conjunction as it is expressing the contrast between the two sentences it is joining.

c. Disjunctive or Alternative

That coordinating conjunction which express choice between two sentences it is joining is known as Disjunctive or Alterative conjunction.

  1. He should work hard, or he will fail.

In the above example word in bolds represents a disjunctive coordinating conjunction as it is expressing the choice between the two sentences it is joining.

d. Illative

That coordinating conjunction which expresses an inference is known as Illative conjunction.

  1. He must not have work hard, for he failed in the final exam.

In the above example word in bolds represents an Illative coordinating conjunction as it is showing an inference in the second sentence resulted from the acts in the first sentence.

2. Subordinating Conjunction

Those conjunctions that join two sentences or clauses one of which is dependent on the other are known as subordinate conjunction.

  1. I took photography as a subject because it interests me.

In the above example because is a subordinating conjunction as it is introducing the dependent clause “it interests me” to the main sentence “I took photography as a subject”.

Type of Subordinating Conjunction

Subordinating conjunction can be further classified according to their meaning as:-

a. Conjunction referring Time

  1. We reached after the train had gone.
  2. I would leave before his arrival.

In the above examples the words in bolds refers to time thus the conjunction.

b. Conjunction referring Cause or Reason

  1. As Rajni was not there I talked to her sister over the matter.
  2. He may participate, as he is a partner.

In the above examples the words in bolds refers to Cause thus the conjunction.

c. Conjunction referring Purpose

  1. We eat so that we may live healthily.
  2. He held my hand lest I should slip.

In the above examples the words in bolds refers to purpose thus the conjunction.

d. Conjunction referring Result or Consequence

  1. He was so tired that he could not walk.

In the above example the words in bolds refers to consequence thus the conjunction.


e. Conjunction referring Condition

  1. I will go if rain stops.
  2. Problems cannot be solved unless they are detected.

In the above examples the words in bolds refers to condition thus the conjunction.

f. Conjunction referring Concession

  1. I will buy the book though it is costly.

In the above examples the words in bolds refers to concession thus the conjunction.

g. Conjunction referring Comparison.

  1. He is intelligent than Ravinder (is)

In the above example the words in bolds refers to comparison thus the conjunction.

 

Use of some of the important Conjunctions:

  1. And, as well as, not only ….. but also are used to join two or more words, phrases or clauses of the same nature of rank.
    1. She went to the market and bought a purse.
    2. Rohit and Hemant are my cousins.
    3. Ravi as well as his brother is guilty.
    4. He was not only fined but also degraded.
    (With as well as, the verb agrees with the first subject)


  2. But, still, yet, express contrast between two statements. These are used to join such statements or clauses that oppose each other in thought.
    1. He is poor, but contented.
    2. He is seventy, still he is strong.
    3. She worked hard, yet failed.
    Nevertheless also expresses the same sense.
    1. She was tired, nevertheless she went on working.


  3. Though, although, yet also express contrast or concession.
    1. Although it was very cold, he went out without a coat.
    (Compare but: it was very cold, but he went out without a coat.)  
    1. Though he is very poor, yet he is always neatly dressed.
    2. He also was late; however, he decided to go.
    Though/ although is never followed by ‘but’.


  4. Or, either, nor, neither express a choice/ alternative between two things.
    Neither ….. nor means not one, not the other.
    1. I shall see you tomorrow or the day after.
    2. Either she or her sister did it.
    3. He was neither fined nor warned.
    If there are two subjects, the verb agrees with the second subject.
    Otherwise also expresses an alternative between two thing.
    1. Never be absent otherwise you will be dismissed.


  5. For, therefore, so express inference
    1. He was found guilty, therefore he was punished.
    2. There must be someone in the room, for I hear footsteps.
    3.  He did not study properly, so he failed.


  6. As, since, because, for express cause or reason.
    1. I did not go to college as I was ill.
    2. We will certainly help you since you are our friend.
    3. The baby is crying because it is hungry.
    4. You must leave now for the sun is about to set.
    as also expresses manner.
    1. As you sow, so shall you reap.
    2. Do as you are told.


  7. After, before, when, while, till/ until, since, for, as soon as, so/ as long a etc. express time.
    While is used to join two actions going on at the same time.
    1. Strike the iron while it is hot.
    While also expresses contrast.
    1. Some people waste food while others haven’t enough to eat.
    Since is preceded by a verb in the Simple Present or in the Present Tenses. It is followed by a verb in the Simple Past Tense.
    1. It is a month since he went away.
    2. She has been Ill since she came here.
    Until/ unless are not followed by a negative verb.
    1. I shall stay here until he comes.
    2. You will not succeed unless you work hard.
    3. Unless means if not
    So long as and as long as denote time during which a certain action takes place.
    1. As long as there is life, there is hope.


  8. Where, wherever denote place.
    1. She makes friends whenever she goes.


  9. As far as, however express extent, ‘however’ precedes some adjective/ adverb.
    1. He is an honest boy as far as I know.
    2. However hard you may try, you cannot succeed.

  10. That, so that, in order that, lest
    express purpose or effect/ result.
    1. She is working hard that/ so that she may pass.
    2. I am so tired that I cannot walk.
    3. Take care lest you should fall down.
    4. We travelled by car in order that we might reach in time.
    Lest is always followed by should.


  11. If, unless, whether, provided that, in case express condition.
    1. I will read the magazine if I get it.
    2. You can sit here provided that you keep quiet.
    3. I shall go there whether you like it or not.


  12. ‘than’ expresses comparison.
    1. He worked harder than I expected.


  13. How expresses manner.
    1. You will never know how he got so much wealth.


  14. Hardly, Scarcely are followed by when.
    1. Hardly had I reached the station, when the train started.
    2. I am so tired that I can hardly stand. He was scarcely six years old when his mother died.


  15. No sooner ….. than. It is used in the sense of as soon as. It is always followed by than and never by but.
    1. No sooner did he reach the station than the train left.


  16. Conjunctions used in pairs (Correlative Conjunction) are followed by the same part of speech.

List of Conjunctions

A

As
As if
As how
As far as
As long as
As much as
As soon as              
As well as 
As though  
And as
After
Although     

B  

Because 
Before 
Both 
But
By the time

E  
Either 
Even if  
Even though

F  
For

H  
How  
However

I  
If  
If only  
In case  
In order that

L
Lest

 

N  
Neither  
Nor  
Now

O  
Once  
Only 
Only if
Or

R  
Rather than

S  
Since  
So  
So that

T   
Than   
That  
Though  
Till

P  
Provided
Provided that

U  
Unless  
Until

W  
When  
Whenever  
Where  
Whereas
Wherever
Whether  
While

Y  
Yet

 


Practice exercise for Conjuction

  Page updated on : 06-Mar-2012  | Total page views : 12530


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