All the schools in India come under the governance of respective boards under which they function. Now, there are various State Boards of Education, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Council for Indian School Certificate Examination and National Institute of Open Schooling which look after school examination in India. Today, Schools provide education to all and provide cost free or concession based education to the underprivileged. At present, under the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, books and stationery are provided to Girls, Schedule Caste and Scheduled Tribe students in Bihar up to the elementary level, that is Class VIII. There are more schools than ever before and the literacy rate has improved to a large extent in spite of many deficiencies in the education system.
Stages or Levels of School Education in India
Primary School Education - Primary School Education is provided from 1st Class to 5th Class. The children admitted in these school are generally aged between 6-11 years.
Middle School Education - Education which is provide from 6th class to 8th Class is called Middle School Education. Children reaching this level are generally aged between 11-14 years.
Secondary School Education - Secondary stage of school education starts from 9th class onwards to 12th class. Students studying at this level are generally aged between 14-17 years.
Types of Indian Schools
Air Force Schools in India- Air Force Schools in India are those which have been established for imparting education to the children of the personnel of the Indian Air Force. These schools follows the CBSE pattern of education.
Army / Military Schools in India- Army Public Schools in India are those schools which have been established for imparting education to the children of the Indian Army Personnel. These schools are managed by the Army Welfare Education Society (AWES). These schools follow the CBSE pattern of education. In Military Schools, 67% vacancies are reserved for the wards of the JCOs/Other Ranks called 'Entitled Category'. Out of 33% non-entitled category seats, 20% are reserved for the wards of service officers and 13% for the wards of civilians. 15% and 7.5% of the seats in each of these categories are reserved for SC and ST candidates. 10 seats in each Rashtriya Military School are reserved for wards of personnel killed in action. Presently, these schools are public schools directly under the control of Ministry of Defence, India. The local administration is under the respective station commander. These schools are located in cantonments.
Catholic Schools in India – Catholic Schools are those schools which are meant especially for Christians, as they come under minority population. However, they do admit children from other religions. Indian Catholic Schools come under the purview of AINACS (All India National Association of Catholic Schools). It is a non-governmental Association recognised by the Catholic Bishop's Conference of India and affiliated to the International Catholic Education Organisation (OIEC) Brussels. These schools have been set up to promote education according to the ideal of the Christian community and in the interest of national development.
International Schools in India - International Schools are those schools which have been specially established for children of International Personnel. These Personnel are generally from other countries, like officials working in international companies, international organizations, NGOs, embassy staff etc. These schools are set up with the help of nations having large interests in the hosting nation: for instance, American diplomats and missionaries often set up schools to educate their children; children of American military and army families often have Department of Defence Dependents Schools (DoDDS). These schools follow different examination systems and boards. Most of these schools follow the IB Board or the (International Baccalaureate). However, there are other examination systems like the GCSE and GCE examination systems. However, these adhere to certain requirements of the Indian national system irrespective of the examination system adopted by them. These Schools are mostly located in metros and cities or around these cities.
Montessori Schools in India - Montessori Schools in India are those schools are affiliated with Indian Montessori Foundation (IMF) or those schools which follow the Montessori method of schooling with certain modifications. IMF is an organisation ideologically aligned with the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI), the organisation set up by Dr. Maria Montessori in 1929. AMI is affiliated to the United Nations through UNESCO. Montessori schools in India follow the principles developed by Maria Montessori, an Italian Physician. Her principles are widely accepted as effective methods of developing the child emotionally, physically and mentally. Majority of these schools in India provide education to children in the age group of 2-6 years. However, a number of these schools also provide courses for the elementary, middle and high school level.
Kendriya Vidyalayas in India - Kendriya Vidyalayas (Central Schools) are central government schools which are under the purview of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. These schools are managed by Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, a premier organization in India. KV's are highly reputed schools in India, they are known as Centres of excellence in the field of secondary and senior secondary education, promoting national integration, total personality development and academic excellence. As of 01.10.2007, there are 980 Kendriya Vidyalayas with 9,96,166 students studying in it. Out of the 980 schools, 4 are located in Kathmandu, Moscow, Tehran, and Kuwait. These are meant for children of Indian Embassy staff and other expatriate employees of Government of India. KV schools are co-educational schools affiliated with CBSE. All the schools have a common syllabus and bilingual instruction. There are no tuition fees for boys up to class VIII, girls up to class XII and SC/ST students and children of KVS employees.
Navodaya Vidyalayas in India - Navodaya Vidyalayas are schools especially meant for children belonging to rural areas. These are fully financed by Government of India and are managed by an Autonomous Organisation, Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti, under the Ministry of Human Resource Development. All the Navodaya Vidyalayas are co-educational and residential schools. Navodaya Vidyalayas were setup by Government of India, in accordance with the National Policy on Education 1986. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas were set up all over the country except Tamil Nadu. They were initially named Navodaya Vidyalayas but were later renamed as Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas owing to the birth-centenary year of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. Though admission to these Vidyalayas is at class VI level, in order to optimally utilise infrastructure facilities available, vacant seats at class IX level are filled through an All India level Selection Test. While education is free in the Schools including board & lodging, uniforms and textbooks, a nominal fee of Rs. 200/- per month will be collected from the Children from IX to XII class. However, children belonging to SC/ST, girls and from the families whose income is below poverty line are exempted from payment of fee. To ensure that all students of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas attain a reasonable level of competence in three languages as envisaged in the Three Language Formula. As of 2010, there are approximately 593 JNVs across India.
Schools for Deaf and Dumb in India - As the name goes, these schools are meant for Deaf and Dumb. There are many Deaf and Dumb schools spread all over India. Some like, Government School For Deaf & Dumb - Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) are run by government. While others, like Vatika High School For Deaf And Dumb School, Chandigarh are run by private organisations. Some of these also get Grant-in-Aid (GIA) or sponsorships from government. These schools are also referred as 'Special Schools' as they attend to special needs of the students. Most of the education taught in these schools is conducted through 'Sign Language'.
Schools for Physically Challenged in India - Schools for Physically Challenged are meant for children who are not physically able to carry out their daily activities or need help in doing so. They can be physically disabled or challenged due to accident, amputation, arthritis, birth defect, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, polio, paralysis etc. These are mostly managed by NGO's (Non-Governmental Organizations), some also run by government as well. These schools provide counselling, early intervention, adaptive training, living skills training, vocational training and economic rehabilitation.
Schools for Gifted Children in India - Schools for Gifted Children are those schools which are meant for those who have a High IQ level. Mostly children having IQ of 131+ are considered as gifted. These children have high cognitive abilities and experience high intensities. These children can be prodigies in areas such as maths, science, language and/or the arts. Some of these have the potential but they are not able to translate their potential in academic performance. Due to their unique characteristics, these children need a specialized course of education. These schools aid the students in realising and using their potential in a desired and fruitful manner.
Schools for Blind in India - Schools for Blind are meant for those children who cannot see. They maybe born blinded or had some injury to the eye which makes them dependant on others. Schools for Blind provide appropriate education, rehabilitation, intervention, training to provide awareness, empowerment & employment. Blind schools provide education through Braille. These schools have trained staff & caregivers who help & support these students with the cooperation of families, communities and beneficiaries. Apart from basic education, they also acquire vocational education and life skills.