Institutions in India can be categorised in the following manner:
Schools- A School is an educational institution where a group of students study under the supervision of a teacher. Schools are the foundations of a students education. And these are the same foundations which produce a capable professional. Schools in India are recognised by the boards with which they are affiliated. CBSE and ICSE are the two major boards of education in India. As of March 31, 2007, there were a total of 8,838 schools under the CBSE. Apart from these boards, each state also has it's own regional board of education. Schools in India are either managed by Government or Private Organisations. According to one study 80% of all schools are government schools.
There are 3 Major Types of Schools in India:
Preschools- Also known as Kindergarten, Playway or just Play Schools, these provide some pre-schooling to very young children, typically of ages between 3 and 5.
Primary Schools- Primary Schools are those which provide education up till Class 7th. Most Primary schools in India provide education from Class 1st to Class 7th. The children in these classes are usually aged between 5 to 12 years. They are taught English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science and General Knowledge.
Secondary Schools- Schools which have the facility of provide education up till 12th class are known as Secondary Schools or Higher Secondary Schools.
Polytechnics - A Polytechnic is a higher education technical institution which offers courses in various industrial arts and applied sciences. There are various types of polytechnics in India - government owned polytechnics, private polytechnics, women's polytechnic and so on. Polytechnics offers courses for which minimum qualification is 10th pass. Polytechnics offer degree courses which enable the students to perform basic engineering tasks. That is why these courses are like short version of courses, offered in engineering colleges. Most of these provide three year duration diploma courses in engineering. These institutions are affiliated to state technical boards and not with any university. The All India Council of Technical Education is the regulating authority for polytechnics in India. After successfully completing their diploma in polytechnics, students can gain lateral entry to engineering degree (under graduate) courses called B.E. which are conducted by engineering colleges affiliated to universities. Polytechnics are the cheapest medium available to promote technical education. Polytechnics are mostly meant for candidates who want to get employed as soon as possible, to kick start of their career.
Colleges - A College is a type of Educational Institution which offers higher education and grant degrees accordingly. India has one of the largest 'Higher Education System in the World'. In fact it is the 'Third Largest in the World'. Colleges are often a part of a university or are affiliated with a University. Just like other Indian Institutions, Colleges are also either government owned or private owned. Colleges provide a host of courses in various disciplines like Arts, Science, Engineering etc. Minimum qualification for admission to Colleges is 12th pass. Admission to all professional education colleges is done through all-India common admission tests of which the JEE (Main), JEE (Advanced), CAT and CPMT are the most popular ones. The engineering education and business Institutes are monitored and accredited by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) while medical education is monitored and accredited by the Medical Council of India (MCI). Similarly, agriculture education and research is monitored by the Indian Council for Agriculture Research.
Universities- University is also an Institution of Higher Learning, just like a College, but having a much wider platfrom, both in Academics and Infrastructure. Universities offer the highest level of education in India. Universities are self-accrediting institutions and as such they design and approve their own courses. There are various types of universities in India such as single or multi faculty, teaching or affiliating, teaching cum affiliating, and single campus or multi campus. Normally, most of the universities are Affiliating universities, which prescribe the instruction of the courses to the Affiliated Colleges. The standard of determining and maintaining standards in Universities, is done by UGC. UGC is statutory body under an Act of Parliament which also provides funds to institutions of higher education. University courses offer students the opportunity to obtain undergraduate, Honours and Masters degrees in addition to Graduate Diplomas, Graduate Certificates and Doctorates. As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance.
IIT's - Indian Institutes of Technology are popularly known as IIT's. There are a total of 15 IIT's in India. IIT's are types of Autonomous Universities specialising in engineering and technology-oriented courses. These have been declared as 'Institutes of National Importance' by the Parliament of India. These have achieved this prestigious title owing to the success of their candidates, who are making their institute and country proud. Worldwide, these are well known for churning out brilliant minds. B.Tech. / B.E. and M.Tech. / M.E. are the most popular courses provided by these Institutes. Admission to these Institutions is done on the basis of various Entrance Tests. An IIT is like a 'Mecca' for any aspiring engineer. Hordes of students appear in the entrance test and just like visiting a 'Mecca' is not everybody's cup of cake, these tests are not easy to crack. IIT's conduct IIT-JEE for their undergraduate programs and GATE is conducted for post gradate programs like Ph.D., M.Tech., and some M.S. courses. Other prominent entrance exams include JAM (Joint Admission to M.Sc.) for M.Sc., and JMET (Joint Management Entrance Test) for Management Studies.
IIM's- IIM stands for Indian Institutes of Management. They are also known as 'Business Schools' because they provide education related to business oriented activities. IIM's are also types of Autonomous Universities specialising in management education. These also have been declared as 'Institutes of National Importance' by the Parliament of India. All in all there are 6 such Institutes and 7 more are under the map. Indian Institutes of Management also conduct Entrance Test for admission. This test is known as Common Admission Test or CAT. And to 'Bell this CAT' is an arduous task in itself, let alone the course. And as if this is not enough, scoring high in the CAT is not enough to get a seat in an IIM; one also needs to perform well in the group discussions and personal interview.
Human Power is a great nation builder. They are valuable resources for the development of a country. And if this, Human Power is intellectually endowed, then that country is aimed at becoming a Super Power. But what makes people intellectually capable? the answer is Education. This education is imparted in Educational Institutions. So it wouldn't be incorrect to say that 'Institutions impairing education lay the foundation of a Super Nation'. India is one of the topmost countries, which leads in the education sector. No doubt, that Indian professionals, especially Doctors and Engineers, are in great demand overseas. Not only this, they are counted amongst the best in the world. The number of Educational Institutes in India is on the rise with each passing year, especially in higher education system. These number translate into 17000 Colleges, 20 Central Universities, 217 State Universities, 106 Deemed Universities and 13 Institutes of National importance. This number is going to rise with the the setting up of 30 more Central Universities, 8 new IITs, 7 IIMs and 5 new Indian Institutes of Science. With education increasingly becoming the primary determinant of overall development in the emerging knowledge economy, Institutions in India play a pivotal role.